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Even papers with a format other than the classical “Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion” format (e.g. Brief Communication, Case Report, Letter to the Editor, Grant application, etc.) still encompass these kinds of content in some form. To the extent that is true, this advice can be generalized. Ideally, you should include citations as you go. For information that should have a supporting reference, but that you write from memory without knowing the citation while in a “writing flow”, insert a reminder, like (ref), to be sure that you not forget to add a citation later.
If you intend to send us the paper for standard level editing , you should expect to go through the paper until you are happy with the information included and how it is organized. In this case, include your completed tables and figures for reference.
If you complete the above five steps with little or no further revision and want us to complete the preparation, you should expect to order premium or superior level editing. You can use our editing level rubric to help determine which level is most appropriate.
You can include rough tables and/or figures for us to improve, including producing Word tables from Excel spreadsheets, producing graphs from data, producing multi-panel flat figures from image files, as well as re-formatting of tables and figures for readability and appearance. If the text only needs standard level edit, you can add figure/table editing as a secondary service, billed by time. Otherwise, it can be included within premium or superior editUse of abbreviations
[WHO] World Health Organization ….(rest of reference).
This enables you to just cite it as (WHO, year), so that it is less disruptive to your flow.
Protein and gene names
Traditionally, both gene and protein symbols should be defined with their full names at first use. However, many journals are making exceptions to this convention, especially for gene names. Notably, gene and protein symbols are often allowed in titles for simplicity. However, there is no broad consensus across journals and publishers yet. When in doubt, spell it out…you can always reduce it later if appropriate. Because journal editors can adjust any formatting convention to their liking, it is always possible that your particular target journal will deviate from these general guidelines. However, if they do, it is an easy fix that will not impede the acceptance of your work.
Use standard names and symbols, if they have been established, as listed in professional databases. Links to major nomenclature resources can be found on our RESOURCES AND LINKS page.
Gene symbols (used for genomic DNA genes, RNAs, and cDNAs) are italicized. Spelled out gene names are generally not italicized, though there are exceptions for some species, including fish species.
Protein symbols are written in regular, non-italicized text format.
Capitalization conventions vary by phylogeny as follows:
Specific notes by phylogeny
Humans/primates, birds, and domestic species
BDNF gene encodes BDNF protein. Gene symbols contain three to six italicized characters that are all in upper-case (e.g., AFP). Gene symbols may be a combination of letters and Arabic numerals (e.g., 1, 2, 3), but should always begin with a letter; they generally do not contain Roman numerals (e.g., I, II, III), Greek letters (e.g., α, β, γ), or punctuation. Protein symbols are identical to their corresponding gene symbols except that they are not italicized (e.g., AFP).
The Bdnf gene encodes BDNF protein.
Fish, amphibians, reptiles
The brs gene encodes Brs protein.
Gene names and symbols begin with an upper-case letter if: (1) the gene is named for a protein or (2) the gene was first named for a mutant phenotype that is dominant to the wild-type phenotype (e.g., Rpp30). Gene names and symbols begin with a lower-case letter if the gene was first named for a mutant phenotype that is recessive to the wild-type phenotype (e.g., kis). Gene symbols are italicized. Symbols for proteins that were named for genes begin with an upper-case letter, but there are no accepted formatting guidelines for proteins that were not named for genes. Protein symbols are not italicized.
Gene symbols are italicized and generally composed of three to four letters, a hyphen, and an Arabic number (e.g., abu-1). Protein symbols are not italicized, and all letters are in upper-case (e.g., ABU-1).
The polA gene encodes PolAprotein, which is an abbreviation for polymerase I. The first three letters (rarely four), which identify a process or pathway, are followed by an upper-case letter that tells you which specific gene or protein in the group you are referring to. If the spelled-out name uses a Greek letter or number, it is replaced with an English capital letter in the symbol (e.g., β subunit or II may become B).
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